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  • “For practitioners to implement credible programs and effectively teach self-management techniques, further empirical research on the physical, psychosocial, debonafide [sic], and placebo effects of humor and laughter needs to be conducted”
    (MacDonald CM. A chuckle a day keeps the doctor away: therapeutic humor and laughter. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2004;42(3):18–25)
    “The most positive claim that researchers seem willing to make is that “current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.”
    (Bennett MP, Lengacher CA. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006;3(1):61–3.)
    “The relationship between humor and health is a complex one. Groucho Marx once noted that ‘A clown is like an aspirin, only he works twice as fast.’ Patch Adams, the founder of the Gesundheit community, where laughter therapy is a daily medical routine, would no doubt agree. Both men, to do their work, require a community—the former as an audience and the latter to magnify the power of the healing response. After all, half of the fun in laughter, as well as healing, is sharing it.”
    (Balick MJ, Lee R. The role of laughter in traditional medicine and its relevance to the clinical setting: healing with ha! Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9(4):88–91)
    „Medical practitioners could begin to help patients get more laughter in their lives. Following the announcement of a study of the benefits of laughter on endothelial function,Dr Michael Miller, one of the study’s authors, said he envisioned a time when physicians might recommend that everyone get 15 to 20 minutes of laughter in a day in the same way they recommend at least 30 minutes of exercise. Although physicians’ advice about health-promoting behaviour might have a limited effect in some cases, it can certainly be a catalyst for change."
    (Miller M, Mangano C, Park Y, Goel R, Plotnick GD, Vogel RA. Impact of cinematic viewing on endothelial function. Heart. 2006;92(2):261–2; Eden KB, Orleans CT, Mulrow CD, Pender NJ, Teutsch SM. Does counseling by clinicians improve physical activity? A summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(3):208–15; Kreuter MW, Chheda SG, Bull FC. How does physician advice influence patient behavior? Evidence for a priming effect. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(5):426–33)
    ”Yet, research might not be ready and able to measure and understand the complexities of how laughter works, particularly when laughter occurs in a group environment, such as laughter clubs. “The prevailing medical paradigm has no capacity to incorporate the concept that a relationship is a physiologic process, as real and as potent as any pill or surgical procedure.”
    (Lewis T, Amini F, Lannon R. A general theory of love. New York, NY: Random House; 2000. pp. 80–1.)
  • World Smile Archive
    1. Sowell C., Is laughter the best medicine?, Quest nr 4 1996
    2. Adams E.R., McGuire F.A., Is laughter the best medicine? A study of the e ects of humor on perceived pain and a ects. „Activities, Adaptation, and Ageing” 1986, nr 1, s. 157–75.
    3. Provine R/ R., Laughter, American Scientist, January-February 1996
    4. Sears W. i Sears M., The Birth Book, 1994
    5. Kwan J., Almost Home: Embracing the Magical Connection Between Positive Humor & Spirituality, Publications, 2002
    6. Rizzo S., Becoming A Humor Being: The Power to Choose a Better Way, Full Circle Publishing, 2000
    7. Adams P., Mylander M., Gesundheit!: Bringing Good Health to You, the Medical System, and Society Through Physician Service, Complementary Therapies, Humor, and Joy, Traditions Intl Ltd, 1998
    8. Mosak H. H., Ha Ha and Aha: The Role of Humor in Psychotherapy, Development, 1987
    9. Adams P., Van Amerongen J., Williams R., House Calls: How We Can All Heal the World One Visit at a Time, D. Reed Publishers, 1998
    10. Harvey L.C., Humor for Healing: A Therapeutic Approach, Press, 1998
    11. Attardo S.: Linguistic theories of humor. Walter de Gruyter, New York 1994
    12. Bailey J.: Intent on laughter. Quadrangle, New York 1976
    13. Berger A.A.: An anatomy of humor. Transaction Publishers – e State University of New Jersey, Piscataway 1998
    14. Bergler E.: Laughter and the sense of humor and irony. International Medical Books, New York 1956
    15. Davies C.: Jokes and their relation to society. Walter de Gruyter, New York 1998. Dumont L.: Des causes du rire. Auguste Durand, Paris 1862
    16. Goldstein J.H., McGhee P.E. (red.): Handbook of humor research. Vol. 1: Basic issues. Springer, New York 1985
    17. Goldstein J.H., McGhee P.E. (red.): Handbook of humor research. Vol. 2: Applied studies. Springer, New York 1985
    18. Gruner C.R., Understanding laughter. e workings of wit and humor. e Nelson Hall, Chicago 1978
    19. Koller M.R., Humor and society. Explorations in the sociology of humor. Cap & Gown Pr, Houston 1988
    20. Lefcourt H.M., Martin R.A., Humor and life stress. Antidote to adversity. Springer, New York 1986
    21. Raskin V., Semantic mechanisms of humor. D. Reidel Publishing, Dordrecht 1985
    22. Westwood R.I., Rhodes C. (red.), Humour, work and organisation. Routledge, London 2007
    23. Aarstad H.J., Aarstad A.K., Himdal J.H., Olofsson J., Mood, anxiety and sense of humor in head and neck cancer patients in relation to disease stage, prognosis and quality of life. „Acta Otolaryngologia” 2005, nr 125, s. 557–565
    24. Antonio I.J. d’, Use of humor with children in hospital settings. W: P. McGhee (red.): Humor and Children’s Development. Haworth, New York 1989, s. 157–171.
    25. Astedt P., Liukkonen A.: Humor in nursing-care. „Journal of Advanced Nursing” 1994, nr 1, s. 183–188.
    26. Bellert J.L.: Humor. A therapeutic approach in oncology nursing. „Cancer Nursing” 1989, nr 12, s. 65–70.
    27. Bennett H.J. (red.): e best of medical humor. Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia 1991.
    28. Berger J., Coulehan J., Belling C.: Humor in the physician-patient encounter. „Archives of Internal Medicine” 2004, nr 164, s. 825–830.
    29. Berk L.S., Stanley A.T., Fry W.F., Napier B.J., Lee J.W., Hubbard R.W., Lewis J.E., Eby W.C.: Neuroendrocrine and stress hormone changes during mirthful laughter. „American Journal of the Medical Sciences” 1989, nr 6, s. 390–396.
    30. Brown W.A., Sirota A.D., Niaura R., Engebretson T.O.: Endocrine correlates of sadness and elation. „Psychosomatic Medicine” 1993, nr 55, s. 458–467.
    31. Buxman K.: Humor as folklore. „Journal of Nursing Jocularity” 1995, nr 2, s. 44–45.
    32. Black D., Pathological laughter. „Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases” 1982, nr 2, s. 67–71.
    33. Blair W., What’s funny about doctors. „Perspectives in Biology and Medicine” 1977, nr 21, s. 89–98.
    34. Blum R., The management of the doctor-pacient relationship. McGrawHill, New York 1960.
    35. Buxman K.: HumoRx. „Journal of Nursing Jocularity” 1994, nr 1, s. 44–45.
    36. Brallier J.M.: Medical wit and wisdom. Running Press, Philadelphia 1993.
    37. Carlsson K., Petrovic P., Skare S., Petersson K.M., Ingvar M., Tickling expectations. Neural processing in anticipation of a sensory stimulus. „Journal of Cognitive Neu- roscience” 2000, nr 4, s. 691–703.
    38. Carroll J.L., Schmidt J.L., Correlation between humorous coping style and health. „Psychological Reports” 1992, nr 2, s. 402
    39. Buxman K., LeMoine A. (red.): Nursing perspectives on humor. Power Publications, Staton Island 1995.
    40. Carroll J.L., The relationship between humor appreciation and perceived physical health. „Psychology – A Journal of Human Behavior” 1990, nr 2, s. 34–37
    41. Chandler M.R.: Healthy irreverence. Humor in stories of illness. „Humor – International Journal of Humor Research” 1988, nr 1, s. 299–306
    42. Christie W., Moore C., The impact of humor on patients with cancer. „Clinical Journal of Oncological Nursing” 2005, nr 2, s. 211–218
    43. Clatworthy S.: Therapeutic play. Efects on hospitalized children. „Children’s Health Care” 1981, nr 9, s. 108–113
    44. Cogan R., Cogan D., Waltz W., McCue M., Efects of laughter and relaxation on discomfort thresholds. „Journal of Behavioral Medicine” 1987, nr 2, s. 139–144
    45. Coser R.L.: Some social functions of laughter. A study of humour in a hospital setting. „Human Relations” 1959, nr 12, s. 171–182.
    46. Cousins N.: Anatomy of an illness (as perceived by the patient). „New England Journal of Medicine” 1976, nr 26, s. 1458–1463
    47. Dillon K.M., Mincho B., Baker K.H., Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. „International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine” 1985, nr 1, s. 13–18.
    48. Dean R., Humor and laughter in palliative care. An ethnographic investigation. „Palliative Care” 2004, nr 2, s. 139–148.
    49. Dowling J.S., Hockenberry M., Gregory R.L., Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection. „Journal of Pediatric Oncological Nursing” 2003, nr 20, s. 271–292
    50. Dowling J.S., Fain J.A.: A multidimensional sense of humor scale for school-age children. Issues of reliability and validity. „Journal of Pediatric Nursing” 1999, nr 1, s. 38–43.
    51. Duffy J., From humors to medical science. a history of american medicine. University of Illinois Press, Chicago 1993
    52. Erdman L., Laughter therapy for patients with cancer. „Journal of Psychosocial Oncology” 1993, nr 4, s. 55–67.
    53. Dugan D.O.: Laughter and tears. Best medicine for stress. „Nursing Forum” 1989, nr 1, s. 18–26.
    54. Felson B.: Humor and medicine. „Seminars in Roentgenology” 1987, nr 3, s. 141–143.
    55. Fry W.F.: Humor and the brain. A selective review. „Humor – International Journal of Humor Research” 2002, nr 3, s. 305–334
    56. Fry W.F., Humor and the cardiovascular system. [w:] H. Mindess, J. Turek (red.): The Study of Humor. Proceedings of the 2nd International Humor Conference. Antioch College, Los Angeles 1979, s. 56–61.
    57. Futterman A.D., Kemeny M.E., Shapiro D.P., Fahey J.L., Immunological and physiological changes associated with induced positive and negative mood. „Psychosomatic Medicine” 1994, nr 56, s. 499–511.
    58. Futterman A.D., Kemeny M.E., Shapiro D.P., Polonsky W., Immunological variability associated with experimentally-induced positive and negative affective states. „Psychological Medicine” 1992, nr 1, s. 231–238.
    59. Galloway G., Cropley A.: Benefits of humor for mental health. „Humor – International Journal of Humor Research” 1999, nr 3, s. 301–314.
    60. Harrison L.K., Carroll D., Burns V.E., Corkill A.R., Harrison C.M., Ring C., Drayson M.,Cardiovascular and secretary immunoglobulin. A reactions to humorous exciting, and didactic lm presentations. Elsevier, New York 1999
    61. Hirata U., Kodama M., The effects of laughter on secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) in saliva. „International Journal of Behavioral Medicine” 2002, nr 9, s. 115.
    62. Hoare J., The best medicine. „Nursing Standard” 2004, nr 14, s. 18–19.
    63. Johnson J.E., Kirchho K.T., Endress M.P.: Altering children’s distress behavior during orthopedic cast removal. „Nursing Research” 1975, nr 24, s. 404–410.
    64. Johnson J.E., Kirchho K.T., Endress M.P., Easing children’s fright during health care procedures. „Maternal Child Nursing” 1975, nr 4, s. 206–210.
    65. Johnston R.A., Humor – A preventive health strategy. „International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling” 1990, nr 2, s. 257–265.
    66. Joshua A.M., Cotroneo A., Clarke S., Humor and oncology. „Journal of Clinical Oncology” 2005, nr 3, s. 645–648.
    67. Kamei T., Kumano H., Masumura S.: Changes of immunoregulatory cells associated with physiological stress and humor. „Perceptual and Motor Skills” 1997, nr 2, s. 1296–1298.
    68. Katz B.F., A neural resolution of the incongruity-resolution and incongruity theories of humor „Connection Science: Journal of Neural Computing, Articial Intelligence, and Cognitive Research” 1993, nr 1, s. 59–75.
    69. Kimata H.: Reduction of allergic responses in atopic infants by mother’s laughter. „European Journal of Clinical Investigation” 2004, nr 9, s. 645–646.
    70. Knapp P.H., Levy E.M., Giorgi R.G., Black P.H., Fox B.H., Heeren T.C., Short-term immunological effects of induced emotion. „Psychosomatic Medicine” 1992, nr 54, s. 133–148.
    71. Lefcourt H., Humor and immune system functioning. „International Journal of Humor Research” 1990, nr 3, s. 305–321.
    72. Liechty R.D., Humor and the surgeon. „Archives of Surgery” 1987, nr 5, s. 519–522.
    73. Lindsey D., Benjamin J., Humor in the emergency room. [w:] H. Mindess, J. Turek (red.): The study of humor. Antioch College, Los Angeles 1979, s. 73–76
    74. Lippert L.R., Hunt S.K., An ethnographic study of the role of humor in health care transactions. „Studies in Health and Human Services” 2005, nr 53
    75. Matz A., Brown S., Humor and pain management. A review of current literature. „Journal of Holistic Nursing” 1998, nr 1, s. 68–75
    76. Nevo O., Keinan G., Teshimovsky-Arditi M., Humor and pain tolerance. „Humor – International Journal of Humor Research” 1993, nr 1, s. 71–88
    77. Nevo O., Shapira J., The use of humor by pediatric dentists. W: P. McGhee (red.): Humor and Children’s Development. Haworth, New York 1989, s. 171–178
    78. Paskind H.A., Effect of laughter on muscle tone. „Archives of Neurology and Psychia- try” 1932, nr 28, s. 623–628.
    79. Rae M.C., Upchurch J., Sanner J.H., Daniel D.A., The psychological impact of play on hospitalized children. „Pediatric Nursing” 1989, nr 14, s. 617–627.
    80. Smith D.P., Using humor to help children with pain. „Children’s Health Care” 1986, nr 3, s. 187–188.
    81. Ziegler J.L.: Immune system may benefit from the ability to laugh. „Journal of the National Cancer Institute” 1995, nr 5, s. 342–343.